Research & Reports (parent category)

Purdue Global/Kaplan – Recent Actions and Concerns

Purdue Global (Kaplan) Recent Actions and Concerns In March 2018, Purdue University finalized the acquisition of Kaplan University, a for-profit institution offering primarily online education. Kaplan University transferred 14 campuses, 30,000 students, and 2,100 faculty [...]

DeVry University – Recent Actions and Concerns

DeVry University Recent Actions and Concerns DeVry University is currently owned by Cogswell Education LLC, after changing ownership several times in the past from DeVry Educational Group to Adtalem Global Education. Cogswell Education is controlled [...]

University of Phoenix – Recent Actions and Concerns

University of Phoenix Recent Actions and Concerns University of Phoenix is a for-profit college owned by Apollo Global Management, previously publicly-traded on the U.S. stock market. The company’s stock suffered after numerous government investigations revealed [...]

VA’s Resolution of 3696 Violations by 5 schools

On July 2, 2020, VA notified 5 schools at risk of losing eligibility to enroll GI Bill students over deceptive recruiting that their prior resolutions with federal and state law enforcement would suffice, rendering 38 [...]

Schools with Repeat Law Enforcement Settlements

On March 9, 2020, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) notified five institutions of higher education that it possessed evidence they had violated Title 38 § 3696, which prohibits payments to schools that engage in [...]

Veterans’ Use of Private Student Loans: A Primer

Click here to download a PDF copy of the report.  Highlights Based on our analysis of ED survey data from academic year 2007-08 to 2015-16: The proportion of undergraduate student veterans at for-profit schools taking [...]

State Policy Advocacy Report January 2019 – April 2020

In just the last sixteen months, Veterans Education Success has worked with state legislators, higher education non-profits, and veteran/military service organizations to introduce first-in-the-nation 90/10 loophole closure bills in three states.

Oregon: Institutional Sector Comparisons

This fact sheet provides statistics comparing Oregon public, for-profit, and nonprofit postsecondary institutions with respect to: • Enrollment—total vs. students using the GI Bill and DOD Tuition Assistance, • Dollars received for students using the [...]

Maryland: Institutional Sector Comparisons

This fact sheet provides statistics comparing Maryland public, for-profit, and nonprofit postsecondary institutions with respect to: Enrollment—total vs. students using the GI Bill and DOD Tuition Assistance, Dollars received for students using the GI Bill [...]

New York: Institutional Sector Comparisons

This fact sheet provides statistics comparing New York public, for-profit, and nonprofit postsecondary institutions with respect to: Enrollment—total vs. students using the GI Bill and DOD Tuition Assistance, Dollars received for students using the GI [...]

The 85-15 Rule and Related GI Bill Safeguards

The impact of the 85-15 rule—a requirement that education programs enroll at least 15% non-veterans to ensure schools are not bilking VA, as occurred after WWII—has evolved over time. This Issue Brief presents the Congressional [...] List of Partner Schools Exposed

The Federal Trade Commission shut down a number of copycat military websites in September of 2018. This report examines one of those websites,, and the list of partner schools it displayed while in operation. [...]

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs’ Inspector General: VA’s Oversight of State Approving Agency Program Monitoring for Post-9/11 GI Bill Students

Prior VA Office of Inspector General (OIG) reports have identified significant financial risks in how the education benefits under the Post-9/11 GI Bill are administered. The OIG conducted this audit to determine if VA and [...]

Why Aren’t More Undergraduate Student Veterans Enrolling at Selective Colleges? Veteran Undergraduate vs Graduate Student Demographics

Selective colleges with high graduation rates enroll far fewer veterans pursuing undergraduate certificate, associate’s, or bachelor’s degrees than those seeking post-baccalaureate degrees such as master’s, PhD’s, or certifications. This Issue Brief explores demographic and enrollment [...]

U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences: Military Service and Educational Attainment of High School Sophomores After 9/11: Experiences of 2002 High School Sophomores as of 2012

This Statistics in Brief examines 2002 high school sophomores’ entrance into military service through 2012, up to 8 years after most graduated from high school in 2004. The report provides estimates regarding the timing of [...]

Advice for Accreditors

Recruiting practices by institutions of higher learning is an area fraught with deceptive and misleading practices, due to a number of competing incentives. While veteran recruiting practices differ from civilian recruiting in some respects – [...]

The Forgotten Faces of Student Loan Default

The Center for American Progress analyzed Education Department surveys which followed students from 2003 when they enrolled in postsecondary education through 2015. The report highlights five groups of students with disproportionate student loan debt burdens [...]

U.S. Government Accountability Office: Public Service Loan Forgiveness: Education Department Needs to Provide Better Information for the Loan Servicer and Borrower

As of April 2018, over a million borrowers had taken steps to pursue Public Loan Service Forgiveness (PSLF) from the Department of Education (Education), but few borrowers have been granted loan forgiveness to date. The [...]

U.S. Department of Treasury: A Financial System That Creates Economic Opportunities Nonbank Financials, Fintech, and Innovation: Report to President Donald J. Trump per Executive Order 13772 on Core Principles for Regulating the United States Financial System

President Donald J. Trump established the policy of his Administration to regulate the U.S. finan- cial system in a manner consistent with a set of Core Principles. These principles were set forth in Executive Order [...]

Center for Responsible Lending: A Bitter Pill: Gainful Employment and Credentialism in Healthcare Support Fields: Findings from the Gainful Employment Data, Website Disclosures, and a Focus Group of For-Profit College Borrowers

The marketing of for-profit colleges is ubiquitous, yet student outcomes are consistently poor. These outcomes include high dropout rates, low and unstable earnings of graduates, and heavy debt burdens that students are unable to repay, [...]

Baird, Matthew (RAND Corporation), Michael Kofoed (US Military Academy), Trey Miller (RAND), and Jennie Wenger (RAND): For-Profit Higher Education Responsiveness to Price Shocks: An Investigation of Changes in Post 9-11 GI Bill Allowed Maximum Tuitions

The Century Foundation: Background on Bogus Nonprofit Conversions (powerpoint slides), provided to the National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity

A student enrolling at a for-profit college is two hundred times more likely to end up filing a fraud complaint seeking a refund on their federal loans than a student enrolling at a nonprofit.

National College Access Network: Defining College Affordability: Shutting Low-Income Students Out of Public Four-Year Higher Education

College affordability is a perennial topic around kitchen tables, in the media, and for stakeholders with interest in seeing more students access and complete a postsecondary education. Low- and middle-income students and families wring their [...]

Press Release: “Increasing College Success for Student Veterans and Today’s Students” | Student Veteran Panel Discussion

“Increasing College Success for Student Veterans and Today’s Students” Student Veterans Panel Feb. 22, 2018 On February 22, 2018, Veterans Education Success hosted a panel of student veterans who shared their experiences, ideas, and proposals [...]

Brookings Institution: Gainfully employed?  New Evidence on the Earnings, Employment, and Debt of For-Profit Certificate Students

As the U.S. Department of Education proposes weakening the Gainful Employment (GE) rules regulating for-profit and vocational education programs, accurate estimates of the earnings outcomes and debt incurred by students in these programs are essential [...]

Children’s Advocacy Institute: Failing U: Do state laws protect our veterans and other students from for-profit postsecondary predators?

The Children’s Advocacy Institute (CAI), part of the University of San Diego School of Law, identified several elements that are essential to addressing the problems outlined in this report and protecting students by effectively regulating [...]

Student Loan Borrower Assistance: ED Turns 325,000 Student Loan Borrowers Over to Debt Collectors It Fired for Breaking the Law

With nearly a quarter of federal student loan borrowers in default, borrowers need a system that will help them to successfully repay their loans. Unfortunately, the Department of Education continues to reward contractors that lie [...]

Harvard Law School Report: Veteran and Servicemember Complaints about Misconduct and Illegal Practices at Kaplan Schools

In 2017, Veterans Education Success contracted with Harvard Law School's Project on Predatory Lending to analyze  complaints against Kaplan brought to Veterans Education Success by student veterans. For-profit schools have garnered significant attention for their [...]

Ashford’s Fight to Maintain GI Bill Access Raises Questions about the Enforcement and the Adequacy of Statutory Requirements

Ashford’s potential loss of its eligibility to enroll veterans using the GI Bill and its more than year-long effort to maintain that eligibility raises questions about the enforcement of statutory approval requirements by State Approving [...]

Department of Education Data Shows Increased Targeting of Veterans and Servicemembers, Highlighting Urgency of Closing 90/10 Loophole

For several years, the media has reported on the declining enrollment in the for-profit sector. However, our analysis of federal revenue flowing to the for-profit sector from the Departments of Veterans Affairs (VA), and Defense [...]

U.S. Senators Dick Durbin and Elizabeth Warren: Insult to Injury: How the DeVos Department of Education is Failing Defrauded Students

This staff report examines the current status of Borrower Defense discharges under Education Secretary Betsy DeVos and the Trump Administration. It includes recent data on the tens of thousands of unprocessed claims for relief, and [...]

U.S. Government Accountability Office: U.S. Education Department Should Address Oversight and Communication Gaps in Its Monitoring of the Financial Condition of Schools

The Department of Education (Education) reviews the annual audits of postsecondary schools to assess compliance with financial responsibility standards for schools that participate in federal student aid programs and increases its oversight of schools that [...]

US Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, Office of Servicemember Affairs, Charting our Course Through the Military Life Cycle

This report introduces the Office of Servicemember Affairs’ new focus: charting the financial issues a servicemember faces throughout his or her military career. We have received over 74,000 complaints from the military community since 2011 [...]

CNA for the Office of the Undersecretary of Defense, Personnel and Readiness: Population Representation in the Military Services: Annual Reports

CNA Resource Analysis produces Population Representation in the Military Services (also known as “Pop Rep”) for the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness. This report, mandated by the Senate Committee [...]

Benjamin Castleman, Francis Murphy, and William Skimmyhorn, Marching Across Generations? An Analysis of the Benefits Transfer Provision of the Post-9/11 GI Bill

This study explored the use of standardized tests within nursing programs. Standardized tests have been used within nursing programs for several decades (Shultz, 2010), but recently their use has increased. This rise in utilization may be [...]

U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security & Government Affairs, Report: Education Denied: The Importance of Assisting Veterans Harmed by School Closures (Oct. 2016)

For over 70 years, the GI Bill has helped our nation’s veterans and their families obtain a high- quality education. In 2008, Congress expanded higher education benefits for a new generation of returning service members [...]

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, A Profile of Military Undergraduates (statistics on military, veteran, and dependent college students)

The number of veterans who receive Veterans’ education benefits increased both before and after the Post-9/11 GI Bill went into effect in 2008. In the 9 years between 2000 and 2009, the number of veterans receiving Veterans’ [...]

U.S. Government Accountability Office: Post-9/11 GI Bill: Additional Actions Needed to Help Reduce Overpayments and Increase Collections

The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) identified $416 million in Post-9/11 GI Bill overpayments in fiscal year 2014, affecting approximately one in four veteran beneficiaries and about 6,000 schools. Overpayments most often occur when VA [...]

U.S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor & Pensions: Is the New GI Bill Working? For-Profit Colleges Increasing Veteran Enrollment and Federal Funds (2014)

Almost three years ago the HELP Committee determined that eight of the top 10 recipients of veterans’ educational benefits under the Post-9/11 GI Bill benefits were large, publicly traded companies that operate for-profit colleges. A [...]

U.S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor & Pensions: For Profit Higher Education: The Failure to Safeguard the Federal Investment and Ensure Student Success

Between June 2010 and July 2012, Senate HELP Committee Chairman Tom Harkin conducted an in-depth oversight investigation focusing exclusively on the for-profit sector of higher education. Theinvestigation was undertaken to better understand the enormous growth [...]

U.S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor & Pensions: Executive Summary: For Profit Higher Education: The Failure to Safeguard the Federal Investment and Ensure Student Success (2012)

A 2-year investigation by the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions demonstrated that Federal taxpayers are investing billions of dollars a year, $32 billion in the mostrecent year, in companies that operate for-profit [...]

David Deming, Claudia Goldin & Lawrence Katz, The For-Profit Post-Secondary School Sector: Nimble Critters or Agile Predators? American Economic Association Journal of Economic Perspectives

Private for-profit institutions have become an increasingly visible part of the U.S. higher education sector. Within that sector, they are today the most diverse institutions by program and size, have been the fastest growing, have [...]

U.S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor & Pensions: Department of Defense Data Reveals For-Profit Colleges Are Taking in the Bulk of Military Education Benefits (2012)

New information provided by the Department of Defense (DOD) and analyzed by the majority staff of the U.S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (HELP) shows that for-profit colleges are receiving one of [...]

U.S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor & Pensions: Recruiting Training Manuals from Top for-Profit Colleges (2012)

The Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions conducted an investigation into predatory behavior at the nation's largest for-profit schools, who receive hundreds of millions of dollars of taxpayer dollars and veterans benefits, and [...]

U.S. Government Accountability Office: DOD Education Benefits: Increased Oversight of Tuition Assistance Program is Needed

GAO recommends that DOD (1) improve accountability for recommendations made by third- party quality reviews, (2) develop a centralized process to track complaints against schools, (3) conduct a systemic review of its oversight processes, (4) take actions [...]

U.S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor & Pensions: Benefitting Whom? For-Profit Education Companies and the Growth of Military Educational Benefits (2011)

Serious questions have emerged about the share of the military educational benefit pool going to for- profit schools with questionable outcomes. Congress may have unintentionally subjected this new generation of veterans to the worst excesses [...]

U.S. Government Accountability Office: For-Profit Colleges: Undercover Testing Finds Colleges Encouraged Fraud and Engaged in Deceptive Marketing Practices

Enrollment in for-profit colleges has grown from about 365,000 students to almost 1.8 million in the last several years. These colleges offer degrees and certifications in programs ranging from business administration to cosmetology. In 2009, [...]

U.S. Senate Permanent SubCommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Governmental Affairs: Abuses in Federal Student Aid Programs (1991)

This report on abuses in federal student aid programs, particularly the Guaranteed Student Loan Program (GSLP), is based on information gathered by the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations in the course of its overall investigation [...]

U.S. Senate Committee on Veterans Affairs, Report to Accompany S.2784 Vietnam-Era Veterans Readjustment Assistance Act of 1974 (S. Rep. 907, 93d Congress) (1974) (see especially pages 71-72 and 126 re: 85-15 rule)

The Committee on Veterans' Affairs, to which was referred the bill (S. 2784) to amend title 38, United States Code, to increase the vocational rehabilitation subsistence allowance, educational assistance allowances, and the special training allowances [...]

U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee to Investigate Educational, Training, and Loan Guaranty Programs Under the GI Bill: Report: Investigating Educational and Training Programs Under GI Bill (1952) (H. Rep. 1375, 82d Congress) – led by “Mr. Veteran” Chairman Olin “Tiger” Teague

There was a rapid uncontrolled expansion of private profit schools during the first several years of the veterans' training programs. Many of these schools were without educational background and experience and offered training of doubtful quality...

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